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TOP代写paper-Take Home Exam

文章类型:paper 发布时间:2019-10-08

1,当今对于企业领导者来说具有全球视野的重要性的原因如下:首先,随着全球化的快速发展,全球贸易和区域贸易变得更加重要。在这种情况下,扩大业务监督意味着扩大客户群,供应商群以及更多样化的工作团队。为了与来自不同背景的这些合作伙伴进行更好的沟通与合作,领导人必须具有全球视野。其次,从全球角度来看,领导者可以在不同的市场条件下变得更加灵活。例如,如果市场上出现新趋势,那么具有全球视野的领导者可以迅速抓住机遇,并在日常运营中应用一些创新战略,这对短期和长期的发展都有贡献。组织的长期发展。最后但并非最不重要的一点是,全球视野也意味着向他人学习,并对新思想持开放态度。具有全球视野的业务领导者更可能容忍不断学习新事物,这可以促进业务发展。领导者无法做的只是坐在角落里,认为其他地方发生的事情不会对他/她产生影响。

1. The reasons why it is important today for business leaders to have a global perspective are as follows: First and foremost, with the rapid development of globalization, global trade and regional trade have gained more priority. Under such circumstances, expanding business oversees means expanding customer set, supplier set as well as a more diverse work team. In order to have a better communication and cooperation with these partners from different backgrounds, leaders must have a global perspective. Second, with a global perspective, leaders are able to be more flexible in front of different market conditions. For example, if there is a new trend on the market, leaders with a global perspective can seize the opportunity quickly and apply some innovative strategics to the day-to-day operation, which can contribute to the short-term as well as the long-term development of the organization. Last but not least, a global perspective also means learning from others and be open-minded to new ideas. Business leaders who have a global perspective are more likely tolerant to keep learning new things, which can foster the development of the business. What leaders can’t do is just sitting in a corner and thinking what happens elsewhere won’t have a influence on him/her.

 2.霍夫斯泰德的民族文化的四个维度是权力距离,规避不确定性,个人主义与集体主义以及男性气质与女性气质,这主要用于文化差异分析。我选择描述的文化是中国文化。

 
根据霍夫斯泰德(Hofstede,1980)的观点,权力距离是指“一个社会成员期望权力被不平等分享的程度”。接受高功率距离的人们非常尊重权威,而那些生活在重视低功率距离的国家的人们则认为上级和下级应该平等。众所周知,中国人深受传统的等级制思想的影响,导致了高权力距离。也就是说,社会上处于较低地位的人们倾向于服从那些享有更多特权的人。当我们观察中国一家公司的关系时,这种现象更加明显。中国员工通常不敢挑战经理,他们不得不听从别人的指示去完成任务,没有任何自己的想法。
 
当谈到避免不确定性时,它指的是一个社会在多大程度上依赖于已经存在的僵化规范。在一个强烈避免不确定性的社会中,人们害怕变化和模棱两可。但是,生活在回避不确定性较弱的社会中的人会倾向于接受风险和不确定性。在中国,毫无疑问,和谐是一个群体的重要原则。换句话说,中国人通常表现出强烈的不确定性回避。在执行一项政策时,大多数工人没有相反的意见。因为如果他/她提出了不同的想法,则意味着他/她必须对此分歧负责。这种不确定性迫使他/她一开始就放弃他们的信念。
 
相信个人主义的人们重视自己的独立性和独特性,而集体主义者则更加关注团体的利益。中国也以其集体主义传统而闻名。他们的共同目标是最重要的事情这一想法已经深深扎根在他们的脑海中,因此,看到中国员工为了整个团队的利益而不得不放弃自己的利益是很正常的。
 
阳刚之气是指“一个社会对获得成功的自信,英雄主义,成就和物质回报的偏爱。相反,女性气质代表对谦虚,合作,生活质量和关怀弱者的偏爱。”(Hofstede,1980)实际上,在男性沙文主义思想的影响下,中国领导人经常表现出直率甚至进取。
 
2. The Hofstede’s four dimensions of national culture are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism and masculinity vs. femininity, which is mostly applied to the cultural difference analysis. The culture that I choose to describe is the Chinese culture.
 
According to Hofstede(1980), the power distance refers to “the degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared”. People who accept high power distance respect the authority very much, while those who live in a country where low power distance is valued believe that superiors and subordinates should be equal. It is well-known that Chinese people are highly influenced by the traditional hierarchical idea which leads to the high power distance. That is to say, people who are located in a relatively lower position in society tend to submit to those who have more privilege. When we observe the relationship in a company in China, this phenomenon is more obvious. Chinese employees usually dare not challenge their managers and they have to finish the tasks obeying what they have been told to, without any their own thoughts.
 
When it comes to the uncertainty avoidance, it refers to the degree to which how much a society relies on the rigid norms that already exist. In a society with strong uncertainty avoidance, people are afraid of changes and ambiguity. However, people who live in a society with weak uncertainty avoidance show a tendency to embrace risks and uncertainty. In China, there is no doubt that harmony is regarded as an important principle in a group. In other words, Chinese people usually show a strong uncertainty avoidance. When a policy is carried out, most of the workers do not have opposite opinions. Because if he/she puts forward a different idea, it means that he/she has to be responsible for this disagreement. This kind of uncertainty force him/her to give up what they believe in at the very beginning.
 
People who believe in individualism value their own independence and uniqueness, while collectivists pay more attention to group’s interests. China is also famous for its collectivism tradition. The idea that the group’s common goal is the most important thing is deeply rooted in their minds, so it is normal to see that Chinese employees have to abandon their own interests for the good of the whole team.
 
Masculinity refers to “a society’s preference for assertiveness, heroism, achievement and material reward for attaining success. In opposite, femininity stands for a preference for modesty, cooperation, quality of life and caring for the weak.”(Hofstede, 1980) In fact, under the influence of male chauvinist ideology, Chinese leaders often show directness and even aggressiveness.

 3.根据Stephen,P. R.和Mary,C.(2012)的观点,多样性是“组织中的人们彼此不同且相似的一种方式”。它不仅应包括差异,还应考虑相似性。随着全球化的发展,全球多元化在管理中变得越来越重要,其原因如下:首先,在公司的战略层面,多元化可以帮助增强对市场的了解,这是与其他市场相比的一个有利优势。竞争对手。例如,更大多样性的实现使IBM获得了更多多样性的客户群(Thomas,D. A.,2004)。其次,团体绩效可以从中受益,因为来自不同背景的更多人拥有更多创新的方法来解决问题。结果,可以大大提高解决问题的能力。最后,关于人员管理,具有多样性的组织有能力吸引更多有才华的员工。但是,我们应该注意,有时更多的多样性也会带来更多的冲突。
 
为了整合全球多样性,领导者必须承担起整合者的责任。第一步是使多样性合法化。换句话说,领导者应该确保已经建立了合法性。(Moran,R. T.,Harris,P. R.,Moran,S. V.,&Soccorsy,J.,2004)。而且,尽管应该考虑成员所来自的每种文化,但仍然必须有一个共同的愿景来指导团队前进。只有这样,员工才能确切地知道他们在做什么以及将要实现什么。此外,如果公司旨在整合多样性,则需要制定指导或培训计划。原因是“我们的人性是不接受或接近与我们不同的事物。但这并不能接受任何类型或形式的歧视。我们在多元文化环境中生活和工作。因此,组织面临的挑战是找到使员工有效地与不喜欢他们的人打交道的方法。”(斯蒂芬,P。R.和玛丽,C.,2012年)
3. According to Stephen, P. R.& Mary, C.(2012), diversity is a way “where people in an organization are different from and similar to one another”. It should not only include the differences, but also take the similarity into consideration. With the development of globalization, the global diversity becomes more and more important in the management because of the following reasons: First, in a strategic level for a company, the diversity can help enhance the understanding of the markets which is a good advantage over other competitors. For example, the implementation of greater diversity lets IBM obtain a more diverse customer set (Thomas, D. A., 2004). Second, the group performance can benefit from it, for more people from different backgrounds have more innovative methods to deal with the problems. As a consequence, the problem-solving ability can be greatly improved. Finally, with regard to the people management, an organization with diversity has the ability to attract more talented employees. However, we should note that sometimes more diversity also bring about more conflicts.
 
In order to integrate the global diversity, leaders must take the responsibility to act as an integrator. The first step is to make the diversity legal. In another word, leaders are supposed to ensure that the legitimacy has been built.(Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R., Moran, S. V., & Soccorsy, J. ,2004). What’s more, although every culture from which the members come should be considered, there still must be a shared vision that guides the team to move ahead. Only in this way can employees know exactly what they are doing and what they are going to achieve. In addition, mentoring or training programs need be in place if a company aims to integrate diversity. The reason is that “our human nature is to not accept or approach anything that’s different from us. But it doesn’t make discrimination of any type or form acceptable. And we live and work in a multicultural context. So the challenge for organizations is to find ways for employees to be effective in dealing with others who aren’t like them”.(Stephen, P. R.& Mary, C., 2012)

4.关于跨文化领导,文化协同是一种著名的方法。根据阿德勒(Adler,1980)的说法,“文化协同是在组织政策和实践的基础上形成的过程,该政策和实践基于但不限于单个组织成员和客户的文化模式。”文化协同关注的是群体的多样性,这是团队发展的源泉,并促进了广泛的管理选择和实践。但是,每个硬币都有两个面。同样不可避免的是,必须分析许多文化因素,因此可能非常耗时。
 
结果,想要培养能够改善团队绩效的“团队环境”的多元文化团队的领导者可以考虑以下几点:首先,必须设定适当的规范性方向。可以增强团队凝聚力,如果他们同意小组准则,那么他们将与其他团队成员有效地合作。其次,对每个成员的成就感兴趣是至关重要的,这样每个人都可以感觉到自己的价值。有了这种无形的动力,他们将愿意努力工作,以共同提高团队绩效。第三,领导者必须不遗余力地在集团内部建立相互信任和信心,这是合作的基础。
 
4. Cultural synergy is a famous method with regard to the cross-cultural leadership. According to Adler (1980), “Cultural synergy is a process in which organization policies and practices are formed on the basis of, but not limited to, the cultural patterns of individual organization members and clients.” Cultural synergy focus on the group’s diversity, which is the source of team development and promotes the wide range of management options and practices. However, every coin has two sides. It is also inevitable that a lot of cultural elements must be analyzed, thus it might be very time-consuming.
 
As a result, a leader of a muti-cultural team who wants to cultivate a “team environment” that improves team performance can take the followings into consideration: First, appropriate normative orientations must be set. The team cohesion can be developed and if they agree with the group norms, they will work efficiently with other team members. Second, it is of vital importance to take interest in achievements of each member, so that everyone has the feeling that he/she is valued. With this kind of intangible motivation, they will be willing to work hard so as to enhance the team performance together. Third, a leader must spare no effort to build mutual trust and confidence within the group, which is the basis of the cooperation.
 
5.如果某位同事去海外工作了两年,我建议他/她在开始之前应该花一些时间阅读一些与当地习俗和习惯有关的书籍或文章,以免遭受文化风险。休克可以减少。在可能的情况下,向曾经去过那里或住在那里的朋友寻求建议更为实际,这样可以避免一些错误。此步骤也称为文化准备。
 
另外,当他/她到达那里时,他/她应该尽一切努力参与他/她将与之一起工作的工作组。例如,一起吃饭和互相聊天可以帮助一个来自国外的新来者更快更好地与同事建立良好的关系。正是这种交流使人们体验了当地人的思维方式和世界观。我还想告诉他/她,在整个过程中需要耐心。没有人可以很快熟悉外国环境。因此,面对问题时,他/她应冷静下来,并尝试充分了解主办文化的本质。
 
5. If a colleague is going on an overseas assignment for two years, I will suggest that he/she should spend some time reading some books or articles which are related to the local customs and practices there before starting off so that the risks of cultural shock can be decreased. When it is possible, asking a friend who has been there or who is living there for advice is more practical, so that some mistakes can be avoided. This step is also called culturally prepared.
 
In addition, when he/she arrived there, he/she is supposed to make every effort to get involved in the work group that he/she is going to work with. For instance, eating together and chatting with each other can help a new comer from a foreign country to build a good relationship with co-workers better and sooner. It is this kind of communication that makes people experience the thinking mode and world view of local people. I also want to tell him/her that patience is required during the whole process. No one can become familiar with a foreign environment very quickly. So when faced with problems, he/she should calm down and try to fully understand the essence of the host culture.
  
 
References:
Adler, N. J. (1980). Cultural synergy: the management of cross-cultural organizations. Retrieved December 05, 2017, from the Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/245823230_Cultural_synergy_The_management_of_cross-cultural_organizations.
Earnhardt, M. P. (2009). The Successful Expatriate Leader in China. Graziadio Business Review, 12(1).
Hofstede, Geert. (1980). Culture’s ConsequencesCulture's Consequences. Sage Pubns.
Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R., Moran, S. V., & Soccorsy, J. (2004). Managing cultural differences : global leadership strategies for the 21st century. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Stephen, P. R.& Mary, C.(2012). Management.(11nd ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thomas, D. A. (2004). Diversity as strategy. Harvard Business Review,82(9), 98.