购买服务或商品可能会带来产品性能不令人满意的风险，称为感知风险。较高的感知风险通常会导致对信息搜索的依赖性更高，并使购买前的决策过程更加困难。 Groupon Promise可以减少消费者可能认为的风险，即使他们做出了错误的选择，他们也总是可以得到回报。
而且，Groupon Promise可以帮助减少购买后的不和谐情绪，这是决定购买时的不确定性或焦虑感（Hawkins＆Mothersbaugh，1998），因为Groupon Promise在某些情况下会感到后悔时向客户保证退货政策。1、As Julie Mossler, the PR of the company illustrated that the company’s fast growth can be attributed partly to the company’ understanding of consumer behavior and pointed out that price was the activation point that people would subscribe with Groupon repeatedly using Groupon, in addition people are also concerned about working with quality merchant and having an experience that they cannot get elsewhere. Moreover, she explained that the rapid growing of Groupon is also as a result of the company’s ability to solve the problem to engage with local customers and turn it into real term sales.
2、The Groupon Promise is the promises that at any time Groupon disappoints its users or the merchant does not provide with what they say they will, the customers can get a refund without a question.
The buying of a service or a good may involve risk that the performance of the product is not satisfactory which is referred as perceived risk. Higher perceived risk will typically result in higher reliance of information search and make the decision process prior to purchase more difficult. The Groupon Promises can reduce the perceived risk as the consumers may consider even if they make a poor choice, they can always get a return.
Moreover, Groupon Promise can help to reduce post purchase dissonance which is the uncertainty or anxiety when deciding to make a purchase (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998) because Groupon Promise guarantee the customer of return policy under certain circumstances when they feel regretted.
首先，问题识别是第一阶段，可以定义为消费者所需状态与感知到的实际状态之间的差异，足以触发决策过程（Hawkins＆Mothersbaugh，1998）。订阅的电子邮件可能会激起Groupon用户的电子邮件，该电子邮件通知用户某些产品的今天最佳报价，每日交易和折扣代码。他们也可能是由朋友通过Facebook或Twitter推荐而触发的。 Groupon Now是一款智能手机应用程序，可以使消费者意识到附近的优惠活动，这也可能会触发问题识别。
最后，最后一步是购买后评估。确认交易后，消费者可能会使用该提议而不使用该提议，使用提议的用户可能会感到满意或不满意，而感到不满意的消费者可能会采取诸如退货，停止使用Groupon，参与交易等行动。如果他们的口碑不好，请向他们的朋友抱怨，或者他们可能不采取任何行动，但将来可能不太可能使用Groupon（Hawkins＆Mothersbaugh，1998）。3. The five-stage purchase decision process for a typical Groupon user would involve the following five stages:
First, problem recognition is the first stage which can be defined as the difference between a consumers desired state and perceived actual state which is adequate enough to trigger the decision process (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998). The Groupon user may be aroused by the subscribed emails which inform the user today’s best offer, deal-of-the-day and discount codes of certain products. They may also be triggered by their friends’ referral through Facebook or twitter. Groupon Now is a smartphone app which can make the consumers aware of the great deals nearby which could also trigger problem recognition.
Secondly, information search is the next stage after a certain problem or opportunity is recognized that they may base on knowledge from their long-term memory to decide if the offer is valuable, this kind of information search is called internal search. Also, a consumer may use external search such as personal sources, market-based information to determine whether they should take the offer. For example, they may compare the coupons in Groupon with their competitors such as woot or Google’s offer to decide or they may discuss with their friends.
Thirdly, Alternative Evaluation consists of evaluative criteria, importance of criteria and alternatives considered. The evaluative criteria are several characteristics, dimensions or benefits the consumer expect for in response to a recognized problem such as the price of the offer, the quality of the merchant and the time restricts of the deal. The consumer than assign weight to each criterion and decide how Groupon’s deal perform compared with competitors like Woot. Price may be the top concern for most consumers.
Fourthly, the purchase decision would be made when the deal is acceptable by the consumer then he would enter the name and credit card online and will only be charged when the enough people join for the deal to be activated.
Finally, the last step is post purchase evaluation. After the deal is confirmed the consumer may use the offer on not use the offer, and those who use the offer may be satisfied or dissatisfied, and the consumers who are dissatisfied may take action such as get a return, stop using Groupon anymore, engage in negative Word of Mouth, complain to their friends, or they may take no action but may be less likely to use Groupon in the future (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998).
Groupon的另一个挑战是Groupon的增长率。 Groupon一直是增长最快的业务，并已扩展到欧洲和其他一些国家，但是，订阅的大多数用户仍然是美国用户，并且大多数报价仍在美国销售。建议Groupon不断努力从国际角度了解消费者的购买行为。 Groupon还应尝试与海外业务合作，并在美国以外提供更多交易。
4. The psychological influences would be perception, learning, memory, motives, personality, emotions and attitudes of a person (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998). For example, a user may have the need for Stimulation and when is informed of a new activity by Groupon and may trigger impulsive purchasing. The sociological influences may be culture, subculture, demographics, social status, reference groups, family and marketing activities ((Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998). For example, when the economy is not well, people may have less household income to spend especially for unnecessary products, hence people are more likely to buy products or services which are at services hence they would use Groupon.
5. One challenge Groupon faces is that after the Groupon deal is confirmed the consumers would not use the deal. If the product is not use post purchase, consumers would show a less favorable attitudes towards the business and the merchant doesn’t make profits. Therefore, Groupon should send alert message to users who haven’t used their vouchers to use the voucher promptly.
The other challenge for Groupon is the growth rate of Groupon. Groupon has been the most fast-growing business and has expanded in to Europe and some other countries, however most of the users subscribed are still American users and most of the offers are still sold in US. It is recommended that Groupon should continually make effort to understand consumers’ purchasing behavior from an international perspective. Groupon should also make attempts to work with business overseas and provide more deals outside US.
Hawkins, D. I., Mothersbaugh, D. L (1998). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy 10/e. McGraw-Hill.