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TOP网课essay代写-Individual and Oral Narratives in Historical Events

文章类型:presentation 发布时间:2019-11-12

介绍

在《沉默的另一面》中,作者通过以下方面展示了Butalia的方法论:个人,传记和口头叙述。所有这些都为书面的历史事件做出了贡献。据作者说,他从幸存者那里收集了故事(Butalia,5)。他出生在印度的一个中产阶级家庭,处于相对平静和繁荣的时期。在来自印度人的恐怖故事的启发下,这位随机工作经验的作者对与分区有关的痛苦深感兴趣。她进一步研究了历史,发现大多数文献都从政治角度讨论了分区制度,这使她感到失望和沮丧,因为她从与印第安人接触的亲身经历中得知,分区制度给印第安人带来的社会,宗教苦难多于政治上的苦难方面。分区的历史还没有结束,它对人们的日常生活产生了困扰,例如家庭分离,宗教宽容,社会破裂。 Butalia意识到,这种研究差距令人担忧,如果她计划收集Partition的深远影响,她需要工具和资源。结果,她关于分区的信息来源来自两个方面。
 
首先,它来自历史书籍。但是,作者怀疑信息的可靠性。这些故事是由家庭讲述和复述的。他的父母都经历了印度艰难的战争时期。但是,他没有讲故事。电影“海德”中也有插图。尽管有外界的判断,海德的主要角色还是想证明他父亲的纯真。许多故事生动生动,使作者相信分区的残酷和血腥。电影《海德》中也是如此,只是在经历了残酷对待之后,他才开始了解父亲的处境。同时,他不相信别人对他父亲的批评。电影描述了克什米尔1995年冬天的故事。
 
电影的第一部分介绍了主角的动作。他去监狱检查有关父亲的真相。他四处张望他的父亲,甚至经历了选举和战士失败多次。在发现他的母亲和叔叔之间有特殊的关系后,他开始弄清楚这幅画。广场上的讲话是电影的亮点。隐喻他从那时起就拥有如此强大的力量。他被愤怒和失望压制了。同时,他开始了解他的母亲。事实不是人们从外界看到的东西那样容易理解。
Individual and Oral Narratives in Historical Events
Introduction
In The Other Side of Silence, the author demonstrates Butalia’s Methodology through following aspects such as individuals, biographies, and oral narratives. All these have made contribution to the written historical events. According to author, he collected stories from the survivors ( Butalia, 5). He was born in a middle-class family from India in a period relative calm and prosperity. In a random working experience inspired by the horrifying stories from people in India, the writer was intrigued with the pains associated with Partition. She further researched the history and found most of the literatures discussed the Partition from political terms, which disappoints and frustrates her as she, from her in-person experiences in contacting with Indians, knows that Partition has brought Indians more social, religious sufferings than political aspects. The history of Partition is not over and its effects are haunting on people’s daily life, such as family separation, religious intolerance, social rupture. Butalia realized that such research gap is saddening and she needs tools and sources if she planned to collect the deep influence of Partition. As a result, her source of information about Partition was from two aspects.
 
Firstly, it came from the history books. However, the author doubted the reliability of the information. The stories were told and retold by households. Both his parents experienced the difficult war time in India. However, he did not take in the stories. It is also illustrated in the movie of “Haider”. The main character Haider wants to prove the innocence of his father despite of the judgments from outside. Many stories were vivid to convince the author to believe the cruel and bloody of Partition. It is the same in the movie “Haider”, only after experiencing the cruelty, he started to understand his father’s situation. At the same time, he did not trust other people’s criticism about his father. The movie describes the story of Kashmir’s winter in 1995.
 
The first part of the movie presented the movement of the main character. He went to the prison to inspect the truth about his father. He looked around about his father and even experienced the election and fighters with multiple failures. After finding out that there was something special relationship between his mother and his uncle, he started to make the picture clear. The speech in the square was the highlight of the movie. It metaphors that he had so much power since then. He was suppressed with the anger and disappointment. At the same time, he started to understand his mother. The truth is not what people see from the outside and as easy as to be understood.

个人与集体
为了准确了解历史事件,作者开始阅读有关分区的书面作品(Butalia,5)。当然,作者仍然怀疑这本书的事实和可靠性。使用内存有其自身的缺点。有许多不确定因素,例如谁记得,何时,与谁,确实对谁以及如何记住。记忆的方法是最不重要的因素。口述历史是历史论述中一个备受争议的领域(Butalia,9)。口头叙述不能称为历史。历史参与政治,历史,当代共产主义或与之结合。同时,应包含对女权主义的深刻信仰。恐惧和仇恨等个人情感似乎已经得到培养。
 
作者承认,无法确定人们讲述的故事的真相。这么多年以后,观众无法分辨故事是否是彩排的。尽管有局限性,但口头叙事还是另一种看待历史的方式。回忆在口头叙事中起着相当重要的作用。人们通过不同的日期或不同的时间范围来定位他们的记忆,而不是通过标记历史的开始和结束的事件。证词的虚构性不涉及对事实的争执,而是在以证人,证人,语言,语言和文化来感知和代表这些事实时不可避免的差异。

Individual & Collectiveness
To have an accurate understanding of the historical event, author started to read the written works about Partition (Butalia, 5). Of course the writer still doubted the factually and reliability of the book. Working with memory has its own disadvantages. There are so many uncertain factors such as who remembers, when, with whom, indeed to whom and  how. The method of remembering is the least important factor. Oral history is a deeply contested area in historical discourse (Butalia, 9).  The oral narrative could not be called as history. History are engaged or combined with political, history, contemporary communalism. At the same time, a deep belief in feminism should be involved. The personal feelings such as fear and hatred seem to have been nurtured.
 
Author admitted that there is no way to determine the truth of the stories told by people. After so many years, the audience cannot tell the stories are rehearsed performance or not . Despite of the limitations, the oral narrative presents another way of look at history. Memories play quite an important role in the oral narrative. People locate their memories by different dates, or different timeframes, than the events that mark the beginning and end of histories. The fictiveness in testimony does not involve disputes about facts, but the inevitable variance in perceiving and representing these facts, witness by witness, language by language, culture by culture. 

口语叙事
将书放在一起的最简单方法是收集资料。在这个过程中,它包括困难的部分,即决定要包括什么和不包括什么。作者曾经采访过多达70人。每个故事都有自己的见解和独特之处,但作者仅获得其中一部分内容。当然,原因不是因为其他人不值得听(Butalia,13)。在将文字转换为文字时,很多东西都失去了,包括特殊的曲折。对某些思想和短语,甚至某些感觉,表示叙述者感觉的肢体语言的犹豫。当按性别分组时,叙述者的身份也至关重要。大多数采访都是在家庭情况下进行的,这也意味着女性在与提交人交谈时很少独自一人。在很大程度上,他们受到周围的丈夫或儿子们的影响。共同的事情是,许多口述历史学家都写过关于与女性交谈和与女性交谈,学习不同听力方法的困难。女人可能无法充分表达她们的意思,这是半点儿的事情。在面试中,他们可能保持沉默。
 
另一部分在于口头叙述中难以处理实用的结构性术语。从读者和出版者的角度来看,除非他们很短,否则实际上很少有口头陈述的集合。由于工作的性质,作者搜索了许多文件,包括日记,回忆录,报纸报道。所有这些文件可以分为不同类型,例如非正式,非正式和正式。口头叙事还有另一个局限性,这是许多女权主义历史学家发现的巨大方法授权的方法论工具。当女性告诉这个事件时,它具有另一个视角和角度。因此,讲述总是单方面的。
 
作者竭尽全力说服母亲回去讲故事。他拜访了她的家。最初,她不愿透露自己的感受。过去的记忆塑造了他们的经历和思想。在经历了所有的磨难和失败之后,他发现了母亲不愿说出回忆的真相的原因。因为他的母亲离她太近了,陌生人本可以成功。而且处于不同情况和职位的人可能难以理解他人的情况。与父母的分离使母亲的生活艰难而痛苦。作者想要包含其母亲的感受有多种原因。分区在他们的生活中是可悲和具有讽刺意味的。
 
与父母分离多年,他们感到生活毫无意义,彼此间完全陌生。在电影《海德》中演示时,主角剪了头发,这象征着他生活的变化。即使他与他的母亲和叔叔有血缘关系,他有时仍会发现他无法认出他们并从心底知道他们。这部电影是基于“ Hemlet”的。故事的结尾,叔叔没有自杀。但是,他一生中痛苦不堪。
 
这部电影是一个渠道,通过它观众可以了解克什米尔冲突。希拉尔·梅尔(Hilaal Meer)既是医生又是海德(Haider)的父亲,他对经历的叙述和陈述为听众提供了关于分离主义激进组织与政府军之间冲突的知识。包括Haider,Hilaal,Roohdar,Arshia等在内的个人都是从事喀什米尔争夺的普通人,他们对普通医生的亲身经历告诉人们关于克什米尔紧张局势的历史见解。鲁达(Roohdar)关于希拉勒(Hilaal)遭受酷刑的叙述使人们熟悉了冲突的激烈程度以及绑架者如何遭受酷刑,这本身就是历史。

Oral Narrative
The easiest way to put a book together is collecting material. In the process, it includes the difficult part which is to decide what to include and what not to. The author used to interview as many as seventy people. Each story has its own insights and unique, but the author only got a fraction of the content. Of course the reason is not because the others people are not worth listening (Butalia, 13). In transferring words to text, many has lost including the particular inflection; the hesitation over certain thoughts and phrases, even certain feelings, the body language which indicates the feeling of the narrator. The identity of the narrator is also of key importance when grouped by gender. The fact that most of the interviews took place in family situations also meant that women were seldom alone when they speak to the author. To a large extent, they were influenced by the people surrounding them who are husbands or sons. The common thing is that many oral historians have written about the difficulty of speaking to and with women, of learning to listen differently. Women may could not express them fully which is half-said thing. During the interview, they may keep silence.
 
Another part lies in the difficult to deal with practical, structural terms in oral narratives. From the aspect of reader and publisher, very few of them actually go through a collection of oral accounts unless they are very short. Due to the nature of the work, author searched many kinds of documents which are diaries, memoirs, newspaper reports. All of these documents could be classified into different kinds such as unofficial, informal and official. Oral narratives has another limitation which is a methodological tool that many feminist historians have found enormously empowering. When the event is told by the women, it has another perspective and angle. Consequently, the telling is always one-side.
 
Author tried every way to convince her mother into calling back the stories. He visited her home. In the initial time, she was reluctant to tell her feelings. The memories in the past have shaped their experiences and shaped in their minds. After all the trials and failures, he found out the reason why her mother hesitate to speak out the truth about the memories. Because his mother is too close to her where the stranger could have succeed. And people in different situations and positions may have difficulty in understanding other people’s situation. Separation from own parents have made her mother’s life difficult and miserable. There are several reasons that the author wants to include his mother’s feeling. It is tragic and ironic that a Partition in their lives.
 
Separation from parents for many years, they feel that life is meaningless and they are total strangers to each other. Demonstrated in the movie “Haider”, the main character got his hair cut which symbolizes changes in his life. Even though he has blood-relate to his mother and his uncle, he sometimes finds out that he could not recognize them and know them from the heart. The movie is on the basis of “Hemlet”. At the end of the story, uncle did not commit suicide. However, he is more than miserable in his life.
 
This film function as a channel through which audience are able to gain insights about the Kashmir conflicts. The recount and presentation of the experiences of Hilaal Meer, who is a doctor and also the father of Haider, provides audience with knowledge of the conflicts between the separatist militant group and government army. The individuals, including Haider, Hilaal, Roohdar, Arshia etc., are common people who who are engaged in the Kashimir contention and their personal experiences of a normal doctor informs people the historical insights into the Kashmir tensions. The Roohdar’s narratives regarding the torture of Hilaal familiarize people with the intensity of the conflicts and how captors are tortured, which in itself is a history. 

结论
Butlia在《沉默的另一面》中使用的方法是口头叙事:关注经历过历史事件和时期的小而看不见的普通人的生活故事和轨迹。 在收集故事时,作者并没有规定任何特定的问题,而只是让对话畅通无阻。 通过这种方法,研究人员可以根据“个人和证言表示”来显示分区的历史。(第9页)。 对于研究大约40年前和50年前发生的分区冲突或克什米尔冲突事件,该研究方法被证明具有独特的帮助,尽管存在先天的问题,但也许是理想的选择。
 
 
Jiélùn
Conclusion
The methodology Butlia used in The Other Side of Silence is oral narratives: focusing on the life stories and trajectories of small, invisible and common people who experienced the historical events and periods. When collecting stories, the author did not regulate any specific questions but just let the conversation flow. This method allows the researcher to present the history of Partition from “personal and testimonial representations.” (p. 9). For researching an event, either the Partition or Kashmir conflict, that occurred around 40 and 50 years ago, this research method proves to be distinctively helpful and perhaps the ideal option despite its innate problems.
 
 参考文献
Butalia,U。沉默的另一面。 来自印度分区的声音。 杜克大学出版社:达勒姆。 2000年第5页。 第9页。 第13章
海德。 http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XODYyMTYzODc2.html。 电影.2014。
 
Works Cited
Butalia, U. The other side of silence. Voices from the Partition of India. Duke University Press: Durham. 2000. p.5. p9. p13.
Haider. http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XODYyMTYzODc2.html. Film.2014.

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